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How to tune a guitar

There are several ways you can tune a guitar to standard concert pitch or 440Hz tuning. For example pitch pipes will have six pipes tuned for the low E 6th string, A 5th string, D 4th string, G 3rd string, B 2nd string and high E 1st string. So you simply blow a chosen note then tune the right open string to the note and tune to the note. The advantage of this is you do not need to rely on batteries and it helps develope your ear for perfect pitch as you are tuning to audio as opposed to visual.

Electronic tuners are great for speed and accurate tuning. Because they give a visual and audio signal there are excellent for example at live gigs where because of the rest of the band and volume levels you would not be able to tune up so easily. Some tuners can even detect which string is being chosen to tune automatically.

Tuning yourself by ear is a must if you want to play and learn guitar. A guitar due to it being very sensitive to heat and humidity will often go out of tune and if you are relying permanently on devices for tuning help this is never a good idea. Self tuning a guitar is faster, more convenient, and builds confidence as your tuning ear developes.

So basic tuning is starting with a low E which is in tune and fret it at the 5th fret and play as well an open A string below, turn the machine head until the guitar is in tune. Increasing the string tension raises the pitch sharp or reducing the string tension reduces the pitch flat. When you know the A string is in tune you can then repeat the process. Play the A string with the 5th fret down along with the open D string until the D string is at the same pitch.
Repeat with the G string by playing a 5th fretted A string along with an open G string until the G is in pitch to the 5th fretted A string.
But to tune the G string this time play a G string at the 4th fret along with an open B string.
And finally play the b string at the 5th fret with the open high E string until it is in tune.
You should be able to test the high open E string along with the low open E string when the guitar is tuned up they should be one octave apart in pitch.

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